This was Iqbal's first book as treatise on economics and one of the earliest Urdu books on
the subject. It was written at the behest of his teacher, Thomas Arnold.
He defines economics and discusses its relationship with other disciplines, confronting
issues such as equitable growth, the distribution of wealth, spending, consumption and
population. He reveals here his preoccupation with social issues, discussing for instance
the importance of education in improving the adaptability and confidence of workers and
the need to discourage polygamy and teenage marriages to control population.