OF PAKISTAN DURING 1951
Dr. Nadeem Shafiq Malik
In addition to Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948), Allama Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938) is rightly regarded as the founding father of Pakistan. Throughout his life span and even after his demise, his indebted community has shown unparalleled respect and admiration for him. The tendency reached its apex after the establishment of Pakistan, when Iqbal Day celebrations used to be observed with great dedication. The English dailies of Pakistan have also contributed a lot in that endeavour. This is the second in the series of surveys that the present author has made.<![if !supportFootnotes]><![endif]> We have made an attempt to trace all such functions as reported in the English newspapers of Pakistan during 1951. It is hoped that this endeavour would reveal, at least to a considerable extent, the perceptions of the great seer and statesman found in the Pakistani journalism and the perspectives that underlie these perceptions.
During 1951, the first news concerning Allama Iqbal appeared on January 24, 1951 in The Pakistan Times, which informed that at Karachi the Iqbal Society of Pakistan had been formed to promote the study and research on life and works of Allama Iqbal. The Society which planned to open branches all over Pakistan would inter alia, try to coordinate the work of associations, societies, institutions and other organisations working for the same purpose and publish such proceedings, journals, memories, translations, monographs and other publications as might be found necessary and desirable for the propagation and popularisation of Iqbal’s contributions. It also pledged to prepare and publish authoritative and standard translations and commentaries of Iqbal’s attempts in the major languages of the world and to organise, establish and maintain libraries, reading rooms, study circles and research centres for the promotion of study and research on Iqbal’s endeavours in Pakistan and other countries. Besides, it announced to award grants, scholarships, fellowships, prizes, and medals for any kind of work connected with the aims and objects of the society.1 The report added that the following office-bearers were elected at the meeting: Chaudhry Nazir Ahmed, President; Mumtaz Hasan, Joint Secretary, Ministry of Finance, and Ilmuddin of the Pakistan Finance Department, Vice Presidents; S. A. Vahid, Inspector General, Forests, General Secretary. The following were elected members of the four men Managing Committee of the Society. Dr. Nazir Ahmed, Chairman, Tariff Commission, Z. A. Bokhari, Controller Broadcasting, S. M. Ikram, Joint Secretary, Minister of Interior and Shaista Suhrawardy Ikramullah (1915-2000)2 member Constituent Assembly of Pakistan.3
During the month of April, all English dailies of Pakistan gave special coverage to Iqbal Day celebrations, observed on April 21, 1951, which are described here. The Pakistan Times communicated on April 8, 1951 that under the auspices of the All Pakistan Majlis-i-Iqbal, Karachi, a branch of the Majlis for East Pakistan had been established at Chittagong. The news revealed that the branch would start its life actively by celebrating the Iqbal Day on April 29.4 In its issue of April 10, 1951, The Pakistan Times disclosed that the working committee of the ‘Writers- Artists’ at a meeting held at Dhaka inter alia decided to hold a special literary meeting on the occasion of the ensuing ‘Iqbal Day’ on April 21.5 In further news appeared on April 13, 1951, The Pakistan Times stated that Iqbal Day would be observed at Montgomery on April 21 by holding a mushaira and reading of papers on the teachings of Allama Iqbal.6
On April 15, 1951, The Pakistan Times informed that the Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam, Lahore would celebrate Iqbal Day by devoting full one sitting of its 58th annual session to ‘Iqbaliat’. Hakim Ahmed Shuja, Dr. Inayatullah, Abid Ali Abid, Sufi Ghulam Mustafa Tabassum and Salahuddin Ahmed were among those who would read papers on various aspects of Iqbal.7
Next day, on April 16, 1951, The Pakistan Times carried information that Fatimah Jinnah would preside over the Iqbal Day meeting being organised by the Central Iqbal Committee in Lahore on April 21. The programme included Quran Khawani at the tomb of Allama Iqbal and wreath laying ceremony by the representatives of various organisations in the morning and a public meeting at the Gol bagh in the evening.8
The biggest Iqbal Day programme, as reported by the national dailies, was scheduled at Lahore where Fatimah Jinnah was to be the chief guest. The Pakistan Times and The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi informed that elaborate arrangements had been made to accord a befitting reception to Fatimah Jinnah on her arrival in Lahore from Karachi on April 20, 1951. Besides, the Central Iqbal Committee, appealed the people of Lahore to give her a befitting reception at the railway station.9 Brisk preparation were also reported to be made to celebrate Iqbal Day in Lahore cantonment on April 21 and Major General Muhammad Azam Khan, Commander, Lahore Division was also expected to preside over a meeting to be held in that connection.10
The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi and The Pakistan Times reported that while going to Lahore from Karachi to participate in Iqbal Day celebrations, Fatimah Jinnah was accorded warm receptions by thousands of town and village people who swarmed at Sadiqabad, Rahimyar Khan, Samma Satta, Bahawalpur, Lodhran, Chichawatni, Montogomery, Okara and Multan stations. The people at several places profusely garlanded her and guards of honour by students and Pakistan National Guards were presented to her.11
One of the biggest receptions ever accorded to any public figure since the establishment of Pakistan was given to Fatimah Jinnah at Lahore Railway station on her arrival for Karachi. Dawn, The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi, The Pakistan Times and The Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore reported that long before the arrival of the train, the huge crowd numbering over 50,000 packed the entire platform, the spacious portico, the stairs and every inch of spare space in the vicinity. Thousands of people waited outside. The Punjab Governor, Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar, members of the Punjab Cabinet including the Chief Minister, Mian Mumtaz Muhammad Khan Daultana, the Nawab of Mamdot and a large number of prominent leaders of the Jinnah Awami League and the Muslim League were present at the station to receive her.12 The reception programme also became an opportunity for the rival political powers struggling in Punjab at that time to show their strength. The newspapers highlighted that as the train steamed in, the crowd rushed to Fatimah Jinnah’s compartment which happened to be at the rear. For half an hour police officers and Muslim League workers struggled hard to make a way but without success. The supporters of the Jinnah Awami League who surrounded the compartment insisted that they should be given the privilege of conducting her to the portico where stood the Governor’s car to carry her to Government House. The railway station rang with slogans of the supporters of the two parties as the tussle over that issue prolonged. The supporters of the Jinnah Awami League were at last prevailed upon and the crowd was pressed aside to make a passage along the train. Shouts of “Jinnah League Zindabad” and “Nawa-i-Waqt Zindabad” and counter shouts of “Muslim League Zindabad” were also raised.13
On April 21, 1951 the Lahore citizens observed 13th death anniversary of Allama Iqbal with great zeal and reverence. Recitation of the Quran, offering of fatiha, lying of wreaths, and showering of flowers at Allama’s grave; a full day session of the Anjnuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam and a gigantic public meeting presided over and addressed by Fatimah Jinnah on night, were the highlights of the Iqbal Day programme in Lahore. The Punjab Government declared April 21 as a public holiday and all the local dailies came out with special supplements containing articles on various aspects of the Allama’s poetry and philosophy of Allama Iqbal.14
The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi and The Khyber Mail reported that early rays of the sun saw thousands of Lahore citizens making their way towards Allama Iqbal’s tomb where besides many prominent public men, Fatimah Jinnah, Abdur Rab Nishtar, Mumtaz Daultana, and members of his Cabinet also came to offer fatiha and lay wreaths on the grave. As the Government House car drove Fatimah Jinnah and Abdur Rab Nishtar to the tomb, a confetti of rose petals was showered by an aircraft on the mausoleum. After that, Fatimah Jinnah and Nishtar had laid their wreaths and garlands, which completely enveloped the grave. The Central Iqbal Committee represented by Khawaja Abdur Rahim (1908-1974)15 and Raja Hassan Akhtar had arranged for Quran Khawani at the tomb in which a large number of dignitaries participated.16
The Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam held the Iqbal Day session of its 58th annual meeting in the Islamia College lawns, with Sardar Abdul Hamid Dasti (1892-1985)17 Minister for Education and Health, presiding.18 Salahuddin (1902-1964)19, editor “Adabi-Dunya”, Ashiq Hussain Batalvi, Abid Ali Abid and Sheikh Akbar Ali (1894-1953)20 spoke on different aspects of the poet’s great message of hope and deliverance while Abdul Hamid Dasti traced Allama Iqbal’s genius ‘as a reaction against the degraded plight of the Indian Muslims whose past history Iqbal knew to be immensely glorious.’ He appealed to struggle for the realisation of Iqbal’s great ideal of an Islamic revival, which he observed that despite political liberation, was still unrealized.21 In a lengthy paper on Iqbal’s conception of ‘watan’ and ‘millat’ Salahuddin described how his earlier ideas developed into a universal message for the entire Muslim world. He illustrated that fact quoting from Iqbal’s poetry and highlighted how after his tour abroad, Iqbal rid himself of the narrow nationalism in favour of Pan-Islamism.22
The Lahore branch of the Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference held a meeting of the Kashmiri refugees to celebrate the Iqbal Day, and various speakers threw light on the life and message of the great poet. They stated that Iqbal’s message of an Islamic revival had greatly affected the liberation struggle of the Kashmiris against the tyrannical rule of the Maharaja.23 In the afternoon, Fatimah Jinnah attended a tea party given in her honour by the Central Iqbal Committee in Gulistan-i-Fatimah attended by more than three hundred guests.24
The biggest event of the Iqbal Day celebrations was a mammoth public meeting, having 80,000 participants, arranged by the Central Iqbal Committee at Gol Bagh Lahore. It was prominently covered by all major dailies viz., The Pakistan Times, The Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore, The Morning News, The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi, Dawn, The Khyber Mail, and The Pakistan Observer. Fatimah Jinnah in her presidential speech paid glowing tributes to Allama Iqbal and observed that Iqbal possessed great virtues in such abundance as had made him immortal. The message that he had left for the coming generations and us would rise in value in every age. No doubt, Iqbal commanded international reputation in every department of knowledge but any poet in the East had not achieved the position, which he attained as a great poet and philosopher.25 During the last years, Fatimah Jinnah continued, Iqbal ranked among the top most poets of the world; his poetry reflected the basic realities of human thought as, he tried to shape the future of humanity by comparing the past with the present. Iqbal, she pointed out, was never deterred or disappointed by the hardships of life. He found the path of salvation through those difficulties. Life with him was another name for unceasing struggle and action. He awakened his slumbering nation, and gave it the message of self-respect and lofty idealism. At the same time, he condemned the national leaders who did not grapple with the realities of life. That was why this essential for us to fully act upon his teachings, she concluded.
The Working Committee of the Punjab Muslim League also adopted a resolution on occasion of Iqbal Day which appeared in Dawn, The Khyber Mail, The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi, The Pakistan Observer and The Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore. While paying tributes to the memory of Allama Iqbal, the committee appealed to the people of Pakistan and particularly the youth to imbibe the high ideals, which inspired the great philosopher so that this state could be turned into a land of his dreams.26
The political tension going on between Pakistan Muslim League and Jinnah Muslim League was again manifested when Ch. Rehmatullah (d.1988)27, a member of the Working Committee of the Punjab Muslim League, issued a statement, which appeared in The Pakistan Times and The Khyber Mail. He deplored the unsavoury partisan spirit that pervaded the celebrations of the Iqbal Day under the auspices of the Central Iqbal Committee and criticised the attempt of the Committee to exploit a national institution for narrow factional ends, paying scant respect to the sanctity of the occasion.28
On April 29, 1951 Iqbal Academy arranged a lecture of ‘Abdul Wahab ‘Azzam, Egyptian Ambassador to Pakistan on ‘Iqbal’ in the Punjab University Hall, Lahore under the presidentship of Sardar Abdul Hamid Khan Dasti. Addressing the distinguished gathering which was reported in Dawn and The Pakistan Times, ‘Azzam said that Iqbal’s message transcended geographical limits and was meant in fact for the whole Muslim world. He observed that if the present day world, with its ostensibly insoluble problems, wanted a way out it should listen to what this great poet-philosopher had said and they might find in his words the panacea for all their evils. ‘Azzam also compared the message of Iqbal with a number of Arab poets and drew a similarity between them. He appealed to the people to follow what Iqbal had said and expressed his belief that if the message of Iqbal was translated into practice it would mean nothing short of permanent glory and prosperity for them.29
Elaborate Iqbal Day celebrations were also planned at Karachi. Giving details of Iqbal Day programmes, The Pakistan Times and The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi informed that the Majlis-i-Iqbal would organise two sessions to pay homage to Allama Iqbal. At first session, a public meeting was planned to be held in evening at Jahangir Park, Karachi under the presidentship of Chaudhry Nazir Ahmed. The second session was intended to be held in Governor General’s House on April 22 where Khawaja Nazimuddin and Dr. Mahmud Husain (1907-1975)30 Minister for State and Frontier Regions were to address the audience.31
Among other functions, I. C. I Sports Club planned to observe Iqbal Day at K. G. A. Hall on April 21. Likewise, the Pakistan Amateur Music Society planned to hold a social gathering under the presidentship of Rev. Deniels. The Uqab Air Society also announced to observe Iqbal Day at the Provincial Scout Headquarters, under the presidentship of Dr. Mahmud Hussain. Radio Pakistan, Karachi also announced to broadcast special Iqbal Day programme including the feature programme ‘Iqbal Barghah-i-Risalat e Mein’ and ‘Mard-i-Momin’, besides relaying eyewitness account of the various activities in the city in connection with Iqbal Day.32
On April 20, 1951, a lively symposium on Iqbal was organised by Atiya Begum at the British Council under the joint auspices of British Council and Three Arts Circle, which was inaugurated by T. B. Jayah, High Commissioner for Ceylon in Pakistan. Jayah appraised the gathering about his personal contacts with the poet. He said that he met the poet in London and recalled that when he went to see him at his Hyde Park Hotel suite, he was so engrossed in reading that he did not notice that some one had entered his room and had taken seat besides him. He further remembered that he also had an occasion to hear Iqbal discussing politics with the leading politicians of the day and observed that he was a match for any gathering.33 The High Commissioner observed that Iqbal considered French and Russian revolutions as wonderful changes but doubted how lasting those changes would be. For Iqbal, he continued, Islam was the charter of human rights and the spirit of Islam had given impetus to the spirit of culture and science. Speaking next, Prof. Wasti said that Iqbal did not belong to Pakistan alone but to the whole world and future generations. He said the poet had philosophical outlook, but he was not content with philosophy as a system of cold reasoning, but went beyond it. One can often find the satirical vein in his verses when he refers to philosophy as was generally understood. At the end, Iqbal’s ‘ghazals’ were recited with the help of musical instruments.34
On April 21, 1951 meetings were held in Karachi by various organisations and institutions where lectures on the life and message of Allama Iqbal were delivered. The Karachi Stock Exchange, and Cotton, Bullion, Cloth, Grains, and Oilseed markets remained closed. In the evening, Mahmud Hussain, presiding over an Iqbal Day function organised by the Pakistan Boy Scouts Group, asked the youth of Pakistan to imbibe and follow the message of Iqbal.35
A cosmopolitan gathering assembled at the K. G. A. Hall to observe ‘Iqbal Day’ under the auspices of the I. C. I. Sports Club. Addressing the gathering, Abdur Rahman Siddiqui, said that Iqbal showed the Muslims where they had descended, why they had fallen and how to rise again. He said that another great service of Iqbal was to warn his fellow religionists against priesthood that was responsible for the degeneration of Islam and had taken away the Muslims from their original path.36
The Iqbal Day was rounded off by a mass meeting held under the auspices of the Majlis-i-Iqbal at Jahangir Park under the presidentship of Chaudhri Nazir Ahmed. Delivering his presidential address, Nazir Ahmed observed that Iqbal taught three lessons to the Muslims; first, they must strengthen themselves by following Islam, secondly they should not avoid facing difficulties because beyond difficulties lay strength, and thirdly, they should endeavour to live practically as Muslims. He further said that Iqbal presented the Islamic concept of unity of Muslims in an age when western ideas of nationalism, racism, etc had grown among Muslims resulting in their disintegration and weakness.37 Speaking on the occasion, the Grand Mufti of Palestine, Amin El-Husseini, said that Iqbal who was a close friend of his,38 was one of the few poets who inspired Muslims with a new life and told them of their past glory and present decline due to their leaving the path shown by Islam. He stressed that Iqbal taught the Muslims to forget nationalism, which they had taken from the West, and to be united as enjoined by Islam. He urged that the works of Iqbal, Ahmed Shawqi of Egypt,39 Muhammad Aqif of Turkey, and other great poets of different Muslim countries be compiled together and translated into languages spoken in various Muslim countries.40 ‘Abdul Wahab ‘Azzam speaking in Urdu said that Iqbal taught the Muslims, who were divided and enamoured by the western materialistic way of life to return to Islam. He also urged that Iqbal’s works should be translated into all the languages used by Muslims.41
On April 22, 1951, a special meeting of the Majlis-i-Iqbal was held under the presidentship of Khawaja Nazimuddin, observing the 13th death anniversary of the Allama Iqbal whose proceedings appeared in The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi, The Pakistan Times, The Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore, The Morning News, The Khyber Mail and Dawn. Nazimuddin in his speech declared that Iqbal was not only the greatest national poet of Pakistan but he was one of the foremost philosophers and poets of the Muslim world. He appealed to the Majlis-i-Iqbal to translate the works of the poet in various languages of Muslim countries so that his message could be disseminated to every corner of the Muslims world.42 He added that the mastery with which Iqbal translated the greatest thought in simple verses had few rivals in the world. Concluding, Nazimuddin observed that the poetry of Iqbal was a message of action for the nation and to him the object of the man’s life was to face and overcome the difficulties of life.43 Chaudhry Nazir Ahmed, President of the Majlis-i-Iqbal said at the gathering that the message of Iqbal was nothing else but a true expression of the spirit of Islam and the unlimited field in which ‘momin’ could work and aspire. Iqbal was thus not only the poet of Pakistan nor of East, he was the Poet of Islam and therefore, the poet of humanity, he concluded.44 Mahmud Hussain, in a discourse on Iqbal eulogised the great qualities of the poet and his poetry and said that Iqbal wrote immortal poetry, which embodied in itself all the qualities of the eastern poetry; in himself, he had been the poet of not only of the Islamic world but that of the humanity as a whole.45 Speaking in Arabic ‘Abdul Wahab ‘Azzam said that Iqbal had studied all the poets and thinkers of Islam and the western philosophy and drew a conclusion that the Muslims should revive their own culture instead of looking to the West for inspiration. Speaking in Persian on the occasion, M. Farydoni said that Iqbal who diagnosed the malady of the Muslim world and prescribed a remedy, deserved greater honour than were observance of anniversaries, and that could be done by imbibing the spirit of his message. Proceedings of the meetings were also relayed from the Radio Pakistan, Karachi.46
At Rawalpindi, the Iqbal Day Committee of the Rawalpindi Division of Pakistan Army organised a literary function that was attended by a large mixed gathering. Dawn reported that the programme, which lasted for over 150 minutes, reflected on the various aspects of the poetry of the national poet. Among those who read papers covering almost all the phases and subjects of Iqbal’s poetry, were Maj. General M. A. Faruqi (1892-1970)47, Col. M. A. Jafri and Qazi Nazir Ahmed. A number of local poets recited verses in the memory of Iqbal.48
The death anniversary of Allama Iqbal was observed at Sialkot in a befitting manner according to news item carried in The Pakistan Times. According to paper, in the morning a large number of citizens visited Allama Iqbal’s ancestral house to pay their homage. A mushaira under the auspices of City Muslim League was held on night of April 22 under the presidentship of Abdul Haleem Awan.49
At Mianwali, Bazm-i-Adab Government College organised an Iqbal Day conference, which was attended by a large number of students and other citizens. The Pakistan Times reported that ‘Abdus Sattar Khan Niazi (1915-2001)50 who was the principal speaker spoke of the achievements of Iqbal in the fields of poetry and politics, with special reference to his contribution to the awakening of the Indian Muslims and to the movement for the establishment of Pakistan.51
At Quetta, the Iqbal Day was observed with great enthusiasm by holding a public meeting under the auspices of the Bazm-i-Iqbal of the Government College, Quetta, in the Town Hall. Dawn reported that speaking on the occasion, Syed Muhammad Maiqand, an Afghan leader who had recently migrated to Pakistan, said that the people of Afghanistan held Allama Iqbal and his teachings in great esteem. His message knew no barriers of political boundaries and was of universal character like that of Islam itself from which the great poet-philosopher took inspiration. Earlier, a number of speakers including students and teachers of the Government College spoke on the poetry, philosophy, and services of Allama Iqbal.52
The Pakistan Times informed about various Iqbal Day functions held at Peshawar, Bannu and the AJK. According to reports, at Peshawar, an Iqbal Day mushaira was held in the RPAF Sergeant’s Mess with Raja Hamdani in the chair. Poets of note from all over the provinces, including Nazir Birlas (1908-1978)53, Khatir Agha, Mir A Mahmood, Khumar Naqvi, Khalish Hamdani (1921-1999)54, Sadiq Bhatti, Muzmir Tatari, Majid Shahed, and Farid Arsh, recited their poems eulogizing the philosopher-poet.55
At Bannu, Iqbal Day celebrations started in morning by taking out a procession which paraded in the streets reciting poems of Allama Iqbal. In the afternoon, a largely attended meeting was held to pay homage to Allama Iqbal.56 The liberated areas of Kashmir State also paid homage to the memory of the great poet. At Mirpur, Syed Ali Ahmed Shah (1900-1990)57, President of the Azad Kashmir Government, presided over a literary programme organised to observe Iqbal Day. Similar meetings were held at various other places in Azad Kashmir.58
‘Raz’, the radio reviewer of The Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore, presented a review of the Iqbal Day programmes broadcast by each Radio station of West Pakistan. He was particularly appreciative of the regular features of the Karachi Station, ‘Iqbal ka ek shi‘r’ with Ishaq Amritsari’s commentary on it, which he called first serious effort to make Iqbal intelligible to the ordinary listener. He also praised a regular Lahore broadcast entitled ‘Ta‘limat-i-Iqbal’ in which various aspects of Allama’s poetry and message had been discussed by eminent scholars. He pointed out that another series of talks in English based on Iqbal’s lectures, arranged jointly by Lahore and Peshawar stations had a limited audience and it would be a positive service to listeners if the same might be arranged in Urdu.59 Discussing special Iqbal Day programmes, ‘Raz’ observed that Syed Abid Ali Abid made a fine opera based on ‘Javid Namah’ which was the most important contribution of Radio Pakistan to Iqbaliyat through its Peshawar station. The next best listening on Iqbal Day according to ‘Raz’ was ‘Danaey Raz’ from Lahore presented by Raz Moradabadi (1916-1982)60 discussing Iqbal’s vision and imagination. Likewise, he called Mustafa Ali Hamdani’s (1909-1980)61 feature ‘Agar Khahi Hayat Ander Khatar zee’ a spirited one but spoiled in production.62
A pathetic state of affairs of Iqbal Academy also emerged through a letter published in Dawn on April 26, 1951 by one M. Afzal. The writer stated that in March 1950, Iqbal Academy invited articles on Iqbal‘s poetry and philosophy from various bodies, private individuals and students and offered to award prizes for the best contributions with the promise that the results would be declared by the end of May 1950. The author complained that more than a year had elapsed and the results were still not forthcoming and appealed to the Secretary of the Academy to look into that inordinate delay.63
Iqbal Day was also celebrated in East Pakistan with great fervour. The first function in that connection was held at Jessore on April 20, 1951 where a meeting was held at the Town Hall under the auspices of Dar-ul-Adab. Dawn and The Morning News reported that the meeting was presided over by Riffat Shiekh, District Magistrate, Jessore, and was largely attended by all sections of people. After recitation of Quran, the ghazals were read by Munsur Ahmed and Waliul Hauqe. Moulvi Syed Laal Muhammad, Syed Abul Hussain, A. Gani, Raziuddin Ahmed, and Ashfaq Ahmed read articles on the life and poetry of Allama Iqbal. Discussing Iqbal’s dream of Pakistan the speakers stressed that Iqbal thought of a state where the implementations of Islamic principles would be free from all obtacles.64
The whole of East Pakistan paid its homage to the ‘hallowed memory of the poet-philosopher’ on April 21, 1951. Different organisations, institutions, and libraries chalked out their programmes to celebrate the occasion with all solemnity, which were prominently reported by The Morning News and The Pakistan Observer. At Dhaka, in the morning a large section of the young citizens turned up in the Muhul Cinema Hall to participate in a meeting held under the auspices of the East Pakistan Youth League, which was presided over by Shahidullah. Many young artists and literatures participated in the programme with their own items on the life and teachings of Iqbal.65 Shahidullah in his address stated that the great poet did not believe in the dictum of art for art’s sake, but was an ardent advocate of art for life’s sake. He used his pen as medium of expressing his thought which always revolved round the problems of uplifting humanity. He was a believer in dynamic action and so was a robust optimist, seeing light amidst encircling darkness. It was because of his faith in his self and in the future, that Iqbal could visualise Pakistan, Shahidullah concluded.66
Several educational institutions also observed Iqbal Day with great enthusiasm. The staff and students of the Dhaka Collegiate School held a meeting in the Assembly Hall to observe Iqbal Day under the presidentship of S.M. Sadruddin. Essays and poems on the life of Iqbal were read at the gathering.67 Zafar Ahmed Usmani (1892-1974)68 presided over at another Iqbal Day meeting organised by the staff and students of the Madrasah Alia, Dhaka. Several speakers, including Muhammad Shafi, Mustafizur Rahman, Syed Fazlul Haque, and Jalaluddin spoke on the works and teaching of the poet.69
Iqbal Day was also observed at the Rahmatullah Model School, Dhaka under the auspices of Bazm-i-Adab. It was presided over by Tamanna Amadi (1888-1972)70 and life and works of Allama Iqbal were discussed in detail.71 The Anjuman Boys School also held an Iqbal Day function under the presidentship of Fitrat Wasty.72 Moreover, Gandaria H. E. School, The Quaid-i-Azam Physical Training School, and Rifle Club, The Azimpura Colony Student Association, the Eden Girls College, Fazlul Haq Muslim Hall Union, also observed the day.73 The Quaid-i-Azam Physical Training School of Dhaka held a rally of boys and girls and martial honour was paid to the memory of Iqbal by firing 101 rounds besides an exhibition of sword display.74 A special literary meeting was held in observance of Iqbal Day under the auspices of the Lekhak Skilpee Majlis in Wari with Syed Nooruddin in the chair. The writers and artists, who attended the function, paid high tributes to the great poet of the East. Ajit Guha, Roquyya Anwar, Sarwar Murshed and Munir Chaudhry spoke in the meeting.75
However, the principal centre of interest was a crowded meeting organised by the ‘Iqbal Day Celebration Committee’ at the Curzon Hall, Dhaka under the presidentship of Provincial Health Minister, Habibullah Bahar (1906-1966)76. Besides jam-packed audience including Governor, Malik Feroze Khan Noon and the Chief Minister, Nurul Amin (1897-1974)77, prominent Bengali speaking poets, writers, artists and musicians attended the function which including recitation of songs, essays, poems and speeches. The top-notch poets of East Pakistan including the 98 years old poet Kaikobad recited their poems specially composed for the occasion. They included Shahadat Hussain, Jasimmuddin Ahmed, Ghulam Mustafa, Sufia Kamal, Ahsan Habib and others.78 Delivering his presidential address in Bengali, Habibullah Bahar highlighted Allama Iqbal’s role in bringing about a change in the Quaid-i-Azam’s ideology. It was his views that finally led the Father of the Nation to accept the principle of Pakistan, he concluded. The function was followed by a ‘mushaira’ under the presidentship of Raza Ali Wahshat (1881-1956)79, the famous Urdu poet of Bengal.80 Those who participated in the ‘mushaira’ were Jigar Muradabadi, Mahirul Qadri, Adib Sharanpuri, Iqbal Safipuri (1916-1999)81, Altaf Mashhadi (1914-1981)82, Muhammad Jafri, Zareef Jabbalpuri (1913-1964)83, Jagan Nath Azad and Pandit Hari Chand Akhtar.84 However, in a letter to editor published in The Morning News, on April 26, 1951 one M. A. Bari complained that the Urdu section of the Iqbal Day programmes at the Curzon Hall Dhaka, left in charge of the Anjuman-i-Traqqi-i-Urdu, were designed to exclude the general public from the functions as the invitations were extended to a select few. Those who sought entrance to attend the mushaira or the meeting on Sunday were turned away by the guards at the gates. The writer termed it a ‘novel’ way of paying homage to the memory of the great poet who, if anything was an enemy of privilege and of the ‘chosen few’ and sang of the glories of the common person and the poor.85
Radio Pakistan Dhaka also made a broadcast of special programmes to commemorate the 13th death anniversary of Allama Iqbal. They included a Naat composed by Iqbal and recited by Begum Sakendra Azad and features in Bengali written by Khundahar Abdul Hamid based on excerpts from Allahabad Address and on the message of the poet for freedom and liberation written by Ghulam Mohinddin. Another feature in Bengali written by Sikandar Abu Jafar on the political ideals of the poet; a feature in Urdu written by Syed Iqbal Azeem (1913-2000)86 on the message of Iqbal; and special features for the children in Bengali and Urdu carrying the message of Iqbal were also relayed.87
Among other programmes, the prominent were discussion of Ibrahim Khan, President, Board of Secondary Education’s discussion on ‘Iqbal’s ideas on education’ in Bengali and Fazle Ahmed Karim Fazli, Secretary Education’s talk in Urdu. Habibullah Bahar broadcasted a study in Bengali of Iqbal’s correspondence with the Quaid-i-Azam while Syed Ali Ahsan broadcasted an analysis of Reconstruction in Bengali. Moreover, a musical sketch in Bengali written by Farrukh Ahmed based on the Bengali translations of Iqbal’s poems besides a radio report of the celebrations held in and around Dhaka were transmitted. Over and above these programmes, music artists relayed Iqbal’s ghazals in all the three transmissions.
Iqbal Day celebrations continued in Dhaka on the next day which were given due coverage in The Morning News, The Pakistan Observer, Dawn, The Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore, The Pakistan Times and The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi. On April 22, 1951, the ‘Iqbal Day Celebration Committee’ held a symposium on life and works of Allama Iqbal under the presidentship of Malik Firoze Khan Noon. A large gathering turned up in the meeting and heard the deliberation with marked interest. Several essays were read and occasional songs provided a relief from monotony.88 A number of other speakers addressed the meeting. Shaukat gave a little talk on ‘Iqbal and his views on ‘Tawhid’ and Ali Ahsan read a learned paper in Bengali entitled ‘Iqbal among Bengali poets’ dealing with Iqbal’s translations in Bengali. Munir Choudhry and Karim Fazli both spoke on ‘Iqbal and Socialism’.89 Firoze Khan Noon, in his presidential speech, made a stirring call to the youth of East Pakistan to read Iqbal’s works preferably in the original. He desired that all the college libraries of the province should have complete sets of Iqbal’s works and offered to bear half of their costs. Describing his personal relations with Allama, he recalled that when he moved from his hometown Sargodha to Lahore in 1920 to practice at the Bar, he met Allama Iqbal often until 1936 when he sailed for England. All those years, he never missed an opportunity of seeing Iqbal, especially on Sundays. Personally, he gained a lot by his close associations, whenever he met him either at his home or at the Bar library, Firoze Khan concluded.90
The Bengali section of the Iqbal Day Celebration Committee held a programme under the presidentship of Habibullah Bahar, a function, which was reported to be very well attended, lively and interesting. Papers were read by Ibrahim Khan, Syed Abdul Manan and Abdul Husain. K. R. Khadam, the Secretary of the Iqbal Day Celebration Committee read an interesting paper on ‘Iqbal and Religion’. Among the poets who participated in the function were Moinuddin and Mufakirrul Islam. Earlier the ‘Iqbal Day Celebration Committee’ threw a party to meet the poets, literati, and artists in the lawns of the Curzon Hall. The Governor, the Chief Minister, a number of Cabinet Ministers and high officials attended the party.91
The East Bengal Literary Association organised another largely attended literary gathering in connection with Iqbal Day observance with Begum Mahmuda Khatoon Siddiqa in chair. Speaking on the occasion, Shahidullah called upon the writers and poets of East Bengal to assimilate and popularise Iqbal’s poetry though their writings. The philosophy of Iqbal would create a new happy work based on Islamic principles, he concluded. Abdul Hasanat and Mustafiz-ur-Rahman discussed the various philosophical aspects of Iqbal’s poems.92
Iqbal Day was also observed at a meeting held by the staff and students of the Nawabour Government High School, Dhaka. Both Urdu and Bengali speaking boys read a number of essays and poems.93
Iqbal Day was also observed at the Rahmatullah Academy, Narayangunj at a well-attended meeting.93A Likewise, Iqbal Day was celebrated in a befitting manner at Quaid-i-Azam College Dhaka, on April 22 under the presidentship of Shahidullah. Speeches were delivered in Urdu, Bengali, and English followed by songs and musical plays.94
The three-day Iqbal Day programmes at the Curzon Hall, Dhaka, organised by the “Iqbal Day Celebration Committee” were brought to a close on April 23 with breezy debates in both Bengali and Urdu. The Morning News reported that the Bengali debate was held under the presidentship of Shahidullah at 06:00 p.m. The hall was packed to capacity. Two topics, which were debated, included (a) science vs religion and (b) Whether religion should be separated from the state.95 The Urdu debate began at 10:00 p.m. and continued until mid-night. The subject for discussion was ‘Juda ho din siyasat se to rah jati hai changezi’. Reza Ali Wahshat presided over the Urdu debate. The debates, both in Bengali and Urdu, were of a very high order marked by sparking bursts of wit and humour.96
The S. M. Hall Union Dhaka celebrated Iqbal Day on April 25 in the Salimullah Muslim Hall, which was reported in The Morning News and The Pakistan Observer. M. O. Ghani, Provost, and President of the Union was in the chair. In a short speech he emphasised the need for a critical study of Iqbal and a profound realisation of his messages by each and every educated man, so that the dream of the great poet-philosopher for establishing the permanent values of human life might be achieved in the life of mankind. The function was largely attended and prizes were awarded to some University students for speeches and recitations. Ustad Khasru and Abbasuddin charmed the gathering with their songs.97
Besides Dhaka, Iqbal Day was also observed at other places of East Pakistan. The Morning News and The Pakistan Observer reported that at Khulna, the B. R. Singh Girls School also observed Iqbal Day on April 22, 1951. The girls read out poems and articles written on the life of Allama Iqbal. Speaking on the occasion, Mah-e-Jebin appealed to all who were gathered there to follow the teachings of the poet-philosopher. “If you try the whole life to collect gems and jewels from the philosophical works of the great poet, you can hardly finish it to your satisfaction,” continued the speaker comparing the great life to an ocean. The meeting ended with the prayer that the departed soul may rest in peace.98
The Morning News reported that the students and staff of the Singair H.E. School, Singair in the district of Dhaka observed Iqbal Day on April 21 at a meeting in the school compound under the presidentship of the school headmaster.99 At Gaffargaon, the student and professors of the Gaffargaon College, Mymensingh, gathered under the presidentship of Principal S. Shabbir Ahmed. The Pakistan Observer informed that S. M. Khurshid, A. Hamid, and A. Bari discussed different aspects of the poet’s life. The President concluded the meeting by a call to the students to follow the path directed by the ‘Dreamer of Pakistan’.100
According to a press report appearing in The Pakistan Observer, Iqbal Day was observed at Narayanganj in a befitting manner under the auspices of the Narayanganj Sub Divisional College Muslim Students’ Union. Early in the morning Prabhet Ferries were paraded and after morning prayers ‘munajat’ was offered for the peace of the soul of the poet. In the evening, a largely attended students’ meeting was held at the Rahmatullah Muslim Institute under the presidentship of Fazlur Rahman. The meeting requested the government to declare Iqbal Day as an official holiday and to translate the works of Iqbal into different languages.101
At Rangpur, as per news item, which appeared in The Pakistan Observer, a mammoth public meeting was held under the auspices of Bazm-i-Adab on April 21 to celebrate Iqbal Day with Lutfur Rahman, District, and Session Judge in chair. Azhar, M. Sirajuddin, Sami Ahmed, and Zahur delivered speeches on the life, teachings, and mission of Iqbal in both Bengali and Urdu. The president in his speech asked the Muslims of East Pakistan to treat the Muhajireen as their own kith and kin, if they wanted to be true to the teachings of Islam and Iqbal.102
The Morning News informed that at Gaibandhe, under the auspices of the Muslim League and the Students League ‘Iqbal Day’ was celebrated in a largely attended public meeting held in the Municipal Park with due solemnity. Khair-uz-Zaman Chaudhry, Vice President, District Muslim League presided over. Different speakers including students dealt with the various aspects of the great poet’s life and his contribution to Pakistan. His poems and ‘tarana’ were also recited. All classes of people joined the ceremony in thousands and paid their tributes. Another function was also held in the high school premises under the presidency of Ahmed Hussain MLA, convened by the Chairman, Gaibandha Municipality.103
According to the report, which appeared in The Pakistan Observer, at Mymensingh, the students in a well-attended meeting observed Iqbal Day on April 22. Ashraf Ali, Professor of Arabic, Kumudini College, read an interesting paper on the life and works of Iqbal. Raoshan Ali recited a Bengali version of the poet’s ‘Khuda ka Farman’ and read out a poem of her own which was an extremely well written tribute to Iqbal. Amiyo Chakravarty read out extracts from Nicholson’s translation of the Asrar-i-Khudi and from a Bengali version of Shikwah. The Principal, R. Ghosh Thakur ended the function by a discourse on Iqbal as a philosophical poet.104
The Morning News communicated that an Iqbal Day meeting of the public and the members of the Banshgari Library was held at the Banshgari Riazul Islam Public Library on April 21 under the presidentship of R. Ahmed, Principal Nasirabad Islamic Intermediate College. The President spoke about message of Allama Iqbal and pointed out his valuable services towards the realisation of Pakistan. Later, the meeting prayed for the eternal rest of the noble soul.105 The paper further stated that at Khulna, Iqbal Day was also celebrated by Bazm-i-Adab Khulna in co-operation with the Majlis Tamadun, Khulna on April 21 at the Municipal Hall. Abdul Karim presided over the function while Dr. M. Hussain Civil Surgeon, Khulna and J. A. Matin, delivered speeches in Urdu and Bengali.106
According to a press report appeared in The Morning News at Karotia, Karotia Mahuna Majlis observed Iqbal Day on April 23 with Maulana Abdur Rahim of Dhaka University in chair. Papers on the life and works of the national poet were read and speeches delivered by the professors of the local college.107 On April 25, the students of the Jinnah High School, Parbatipur celebrated the 13th death anniversary of Allama Iqbal in a befitting manner. Speeches in Urdu and English were delivered on the life and teachings of the great poet.108
Dawn reported that at Sylhet, Iqbal Day was observed by the Anjuman-i-Taraqqi-i-Urdu, Sylhet, with much pomp and grandeur. The function was presided over by Shahabuddin Rahmutullah (1913-1991)109, District Magistrate, who was known for his literary talent and had made a special study of Iqbal.110 Diwan Muhammad Abbas Choudhury, formerly fellow of the Calcutta University, delivered a speech dealing with the life and works of ‘the greatest national poet of Pakistan’. Exhaustive recitations from the poetry of Iqbal were made during the meeting. The President in his speech discussed Iqbal as man, poet and politician. A mushaira was also planned to be followed by the meeting. The Sylhet Journalists Association also arranged a special function on the occasion.111
Iqbal Day was also observed at Chittagong under the auspices of Sanskriti Baithak with Khalilur Rahman, Manager State Bank of Pakistan in the chair. The Pakistan Observe informed that through a letter addressed to the organisers, N. M. Khan, Divisional Commissioner expressed the opinion that there was nothing, which would do more to develop interest in Pakistan ideology than a study of Iqbal’s works. Later Shaukat Usman read his own translation from Iqbal’s works and poet Mati-ul- Islam recited a poem of his own written on Iqbal.112
The members of the Iqbal Hall also announced to celebrate the 13th death anniversary of Allama Iqbal at the Iqbal Hall on April 27 under the presidentship of Principal Ibrahim Khan. Habibullah Bahar was invited as chief guest and Hamiduddin Ahmed was requested to open the function, which included songs, recitations, reading of essays and speeches.113
Likewise, students of the Imperial Salimullah Intermediate College also announced to celebrate Iqbal Day on April 27, 1951.114
Last Iqbal Day function held in East Pakistan and reported in The Pakistan Observer and Dawn was observed at Chittagong on April 28 under the auspices of the Railway Wajiullah Institute, Chittagong. Among those who spoke on the occasion were M. U. Ahmed, A. D. Azhar, President, Majlis-i-Iqbal, East Pakistan Branch and Muslimuddin Ahmed, the Secretary of the Railway Institute. The distinguished persons of the town attended the meeting.115
Iqbal Day was also observed outside Pakistan with great enthusiasm which was given due coverage in the national English dailies.
One of the biggest events was held at Tehran, which was reported in The Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore, The Pakistan Observer, The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi, Dawn, and The Morning News. According to details, Iqbal Day was celebrated at Pakistan Embassy, which was presided over by Fayed Hassan Taqizadeh, President of the Iranian Senate and attended by over 400 guests. Guests included heads and members of Islamic diplomatic missions at Tehran, members of the Persian Parliament, Senate and the Government, men of letters and poets. The Pakistan Embassy was decorated with flags, buntings, and colour lights. Iqbal’s verses written in beautiful Iranian Nastaliq mounted in red and green cloth were displayed around the lawn. In a special message read on the occasion, Hussain Ala, Prime Minister of Iran paid rich tributes to Allama Iqbal and observed that Iqbal combined materialistic science and philosophy of Europe with spiritual mysticism of the East and ever remained convinced of latter’s ultimate greatness.116 Syed Ziauddin Tabatabai, a veteran politician and former Premier of Iran gave reminiscences of his associations with Iqbal in Palestine. He quoted instances of the poet’s dynamic and life inspiring message, which in his view was imbibed from Quran. J. Genju of the Indian Embassy paying a tribute to Iqbal observed that he was a poet of humanity and belonged to all countries.117 Ali Asghar Hikmat, Nafisi, Lutf Suratgar, M. Moeen and Hussain Khatibi also spoke on various aspects of Iqbal. Sadiq Sarmad, the court poet, recited a qasida specially composed for the occasion. Iran’s renowned encyclopaedist, Aghai Deh Khuda, despite old age and weak health, attended the function and composed few verses on the spot in memory of the great poet. Iran’s famous musician Badi Zadem sang passages from Iqbal. Copies of Iqbal’s photographs were presented to those present on behalf of the Pakistan Ambassador.118 Ghazanfar Ali Khan, Pakistan Ambassador to Iran, in a short speech in Persian, emphasised Iqbal’s importance as a potent link between Pakistan and Iran and the entire Muslim world. He pointed out that Iqbal not only received inspiration from great Persian poets, mystics, and sages but also used their language as a vehicle of expression and preferred it even to his mother tongue. Iqbal borrowed innumerable expressions and literary terms from Persian and thus brought the Urdu language nearer to Persian.119 Referring to Iqbal’s line in Zarb-i-Kalim, the Pakistan Ambassador asked Iranians to keep in view the role they had to play for bringing about peace in Asia and world.120 The Radio Tehran as a mark of goodwill placed their orchestra at the disposal of the Pakistan Embassy and the radio artists played specially prepared tunes on the occasion. The Radio Tehran relayed the entire programme and it was listened with great interest all over the country.121
Malikul Shuara of Iran Mirza Muhammad Taqi Bahar, who was a great admirer of Iqbal, died at the age of 70 on April 22, 1951. Ghazanfar Ali Khan, in a statement, which appeared in The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi expressing profound grief at the sad demise, said that his admiration for Iqbal was so passionately sincere that he often gave vent to his longing for dying in Lahore where Iqbal lay buried in eternal peace. Referring to the coincidence that Bahar died the same day as Iqbal, Ghazanfar Ali Khan said, “when we come to think of the significant fact, that the Malikushuara passed away exactly on the day when Iqbal bade good bye to this world, we have reason to be proud of a meeting in a celestial sphere of these two sublime souls”.122
Iqbal Day was also celebrated in Ceylon on April 21, with great enthusiasm as per reports appeared in Dawn, The Sind Observer, Karachi, The Morning News, The Pakistan Observer and The Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore. Radio Ceylon had a broadcast of half an hour programme conducted by Iqbal Society of Ceylon. Speaking on the occasion, A. M. A. Azeez, president of the Society said, “Iqbal belongs to our century and he has a message for our time. In these days of conflicting ideologies and an aggressive atheism, he is our guide, friend, and philosopher.” Continuing he said, “Iqbal has given us a glimpse of Islam, which is unalloyed and unadulterated, pristine and pure and has exhorted us to go in quest of it, trusting in the Almighty and placing reliance in ourselves and without being us success here and solace in the hereafter. “ Iqbal,” he added, “thus becomes the modern guide of Islam, who has shown us the old path. Our debt to him is indeed immeasurable.”123 In the evening, a public meeting was held under the auspices of All Ceylon Young Men Muslim Association, at Kandy, in which speeches on the works and life of Allama Iqbal were made. Fatiha prayers were also offered in some of the mosques.124
At Cairo, the Pakistan Embassy arranged an Iqbal Day gathering at the Press Syndicate headquarters, which was attended, by Egypt’s leaders, scholars, philosophers, and poets. Abbass Mahmud Al ‘Aqqad, famous Arabic scholar and litterateur who gave a learned talk on ‘Iqbal’s mysticism and his conception of the ideal man’ expressed the hope that the day would come when the great philosopher- poet’s dream would be realized.125 Dr. Rashid Albanavi speaking next hoped that the Muslims would translate into action, Iqbal’s view on the unity of Islamic countries. Aziz Abaz Pasha and Muhammad Munif-el-Hussaini, son of the Grand Mufti of Palestine, read a poem in praise of Iqbal. Shaikh Savi Sha‘lan entertained the audience with his translations from Iqbal besides reciting verses in praise of poet. Among those present were Pakistan’s Ambassador, the Indonesian Minister, Under-Secretaries of the Egyptian Ministers of Social and Religious Affairs, Shaikh Abdul Latif Diraz, Rector of al-Azhar University, Allouba Pasha, Muhammad Zaki Ali Pasha, Mufti of Egypt and Kihir Abaz Pasha.126
Another Iqbal Day function held in Egypt was arranged by the Philosophical Society of the Fuad 1st University which was attended by nearly one thousand students and reported in The Sind Observer. Present among the audience were Abdus Sattar Saith, Ambassador for Pakistan in Egypt, Muhammad Ali Allouba Pasha and Altaf Hussain, Editor-in-Chief, Dawn and Adviser to the Pakistan press delegation then visiting Egypt.127 Proceedings of the meeting began with an illuminating and learned paper on the philosophy of Iqbal read by Dr. Uthman Amin. The speaker emphasised the great service Iqbal had rendered to Islam through his poetry and prose, which had produced awakening in the Indo-Pakistan sub-continent and eventually led to the establishment of the Islamic state of Pakistan.128 The next speaker, Dr. Muhammad Mahmud delivered a thought provoking lecture on the poetry of Iqbal especially the Islamic interpretation of the political and economic theories underlying it. Dr. Mahmud held the audience spell bound by his profound presentation of Iqbal, interspersed with copious quotations from his poetry, rendered into chaste eloquent Arabic.129 He was followed by Abdul Momin Assukrami and Abul Hasan Ali Nadvi who analysed respectively Iqbal’s prose writings and expounded his conception of superman. At the end, Altaf Hussain, editor Dawn speaking extempore, paid befitting tribute to Iqbal whom he described as not only the poet of Pakistan and Muslim countries but also the poet of mankind.130
The Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore, The Morning News, The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi, Dawn and The Sind Observer, reported that Iqbal Day was also observed at the Ankara University under the auspices of the Turco-Pakistan Cultural Association with a large and distinguished gathering. Messages from the British, Canadian, and Iranian Ambassadors, heads of the Syrian, Jordan, Iraqi and Saudi Arabian missions, the Rector of Istanbul University and Yahya Kamal Betalvi were read. Mian Bashir Ahmed, Pakistan Ambassador to Turkey spoke on the life and works of Iqbal and described him as a really great man who wanted to create a revolution in thought, whom all enlightened men today, wherever they might be need to know and understand. He quoted many verses from Iqbal illustrating his message of human endeavour, struggle and dignity and his views on human rights, religion and the dynamic character of Islam.131 Omer Raza Doghri, President of the Turco-Pakistan Cultural Association and Aqai Gholi Hakimi Counsellor of the Iranian Embassy speaking on the occasion acclaimed Iqbal as the property not merely of Pakistan or of the Muslim world but of humanity. Begum Fahmida Bashir and Begum Zareen Musharrafuddin delighted the audience with recitations from Iqbal. The meeting ended with a Turkish poem on Iqbal recited by a student of the Ankara University.132
At New Delhi, a large and distinguished gathering of members of the diplomatic corps, poets and literati celebrated Iqbal Day in the Pakistan High Commissioner on April 21. The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi, Dawn, The Pakistan Observer and The Morning News reported that the Ambassadors of Egypt and Iran and Ministers of Syria and Iraq were among those present. Khawaja Hasan Nizami (1878-1957)133, who presided over the meeting, said that Iqbal was not only the poet of India and Pakistan, but of whole of Asia, for the awakening of the people of which he made great contributions. The meeting was followed by a mushaira in which a large number of well-known Indian poets including Bismil Shahjahanpuri, Pandit Zar Dehlvi, Tilok Chand Mehroom, Anand Mohan Zutshi Gulzar and others participated. Several poets, including Hindus, recited poems on Iqbal and paid warm tributes to his memory.134
Dawn and The Pakistan Observer reported that Iqbal Day was also celebrated at Calcutta by the office of Pakistan’s Deputy High Commissioner in a simple yet dignified manner. Dr. Kailash Nath Katju135, Governor of West Bengal, presided over. The function commenced with recitation from Iqbal. Makkan Lal Roy Chaudhry and Tripurari Chakravarty of Calcutta University and Hiralal Chopra of Punjab University spoke on the occasion. Dr. Katju in his speech dealt with the life and literary achievements of the poet. Distinguished gathering included ministers, litterateurs, and journalists.136
Iqbal Day was also planned to be observed at London under the presidentship of Ali Sohaily, Iranian Ambassador in London, under the auspices of Iqbal Society in Britain. Dawn reported that the principal speakers at the meeting included Javid Iqbal, then studying at Cambridge. A number of British film and radio artists had agreed to recite English adaptations of some of Allama Iqbal’s poems. The recitations in Persian were expected to be done by a member of the Iranian Embassy in London.137 BBC also planned to broadcast a series of special programmes for the occasion in Urdu and Bengali as well as in English. As per reports appearing in The Pakistan Times and The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi, highlights of the Iqbal programme in English were a recording by Javid Iqbal, and a talk on Iqbal specially contributed for the occasion by a young Pakistani writer, Jalaluddin Ahmed. The Urdu programme included a contribution from Javid Iqbal. In the weekly Bengali programme for East Pakistan; Abdul Hai of Dhaka University was to give a talk on Iqbal and read Bengali translation of one of his poems.138
The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi, The Khyber Mail and The Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore informed that the Pakistan Legation at Jeddah also decided to observe Iqbal Day on April 21 in which a large number of Pakistanis, Indians and Saudi Arabians were expected to participate. Jeddah Radio also planned to broadcast talks in Urdu and in Arabic on Iqbal’s life, message, and poetry.139
Two of the leading scholars of the United States also extended greetings to the people of Pakistan on the observance of Iqbal Day, which was carried in The Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore. Dr. Luther Harris Evans, Librarian of Congress (National Library of the United States) said that to Pakistanis, “Allama Iqbal was and would be, equally remembered for those prophetic utterances of social and political ideals which had touched the hearts of the people and confirmed their resolution.” He argued that Iqbal’s magnificent gifts and widening influence are a universal legacy, which betters the human lot in every place. Walter H. Maurer, head of the South Asian section of the Library of Congress resolved, “As time goes on, he will become increasingly known and appreciated by Americans.”140
The Morning News informed that the Iqbal Academy, Rangoon arranged an Iqbal Day meeting at Rangoon on April 21 presided over by U. Khin Maung Lat, Burmese Minister for Judicial Affairs. Speaking on the occasion, Maung said that Iqbal was a great pioneer of the renaissance in the East as his writings prevented the drift of blind imitation of western civilisation by infusing new faith and pride in the heritage of the East. He said that as a poet, Iqbal ranked with the greatest poets of all ages and as a philosopher, his message to humanity was to establish the dignity and unity of man.141 R. S. Dugal, President of the All Burma Indian Congress in course of his speech observed that Iqbal’s poetry and philosophy were so profound and universal in their significance, transcending limits of race, nationality and religion, that they would remain as a permanent treasure in the world heritage of literature and philosophy.142
The meeting was followed by a mushaira, in which local poets recited poems composed especially for the occasion. Talks on the poet in Urdu and Burmese were relayed from the Rangoon Radio. Local daily papers of English and Burmese published his photograph and special articles on various aspects of his life and works. The leading English daily Union Gazette in an editorial “Poet of the East” paid rich tributes to him.143
Dawn informed that the Pakistan Legation at Baghdad also observed Iqbal Day through a function held under the presidentship of Iraq’s Education Minister and attended by a distinguished gathering. Several speakers including Pakistan’s Ambassador Ghazanfar Ali Khan, who had specially flown there from Tehran for the meeting, discussed life and works of Allama Iqbal. Among those who attended were two members of the Pakistan Press delegation to Egypt, Umar Farooqi and Nasim Hijazi.144
At Sydney, more than sixty persons including well known Australian poets attended a supper held at the Women’s Club on April 20 at the invitation of the High Commissioner for Pakistan to commemorate the 13th death anniversary of Allama Iqbal. Specially prepared traditional Pakistani dishes as well as Australian dishes were served.145 George Caiger, General Secretary of the Australian Institute of International Affairs addressed the gathering on the life and works of Allama Iqbal whom he called a man with a spirit like a flame. He observed that the sands of time were running out and nations and men did not remain stand still but were always changing. How they changed depended on men like Iqbal, he concluded. After Caiger’s talk, M. A. Rafi, a Pakistani UNESCO scholar, read extracts from Iqbal’s works in Urdu and then their translations in English.146
Iqbal Day was also observed at Paris at a meeting held at Hotel Plaza Athena on April 21 under the presidentship of Prof. Massignon, France’s foremost oriental authority. Among those who attended were Prof. Meile of Ecole des Langues Orientales, Prof. Granai of Fa culte des letters de Lyon, Prof. Levi, Directeur de I’Institut d’Etudes Islamiques, members of the cultural section of the Quaid’ Orsay, representatives of literary journals, diplomats and Pakistani nationals residing in Paris.147 Presiding over the meeting, Massignon recounted his pleasant association with Iqbal and paid lavish tributes to his great contributions to world literature and thought. He said that Iqbal belonged not only to Pakistan but to the entire world.148 Professor Meile discussed the close relationship, which existed between Iqbal and France. He said that Iqbal was fond of France and knew her thinkers and his keen sentiments regarding individuality brought him close to us. For it was the concept of individuality that lay behind all his thinking. The notion of Khudi which he thoroughly studied, was something very well known in France. In that way Iqbal was eminently in the French tradition of Encylopaedists and of French philosophy of the 19th century. It was in that way that he gave a new stimulus to his country and contributed to the great revival of the East, which was a landmark of our time, Prof. Meile, concluded. Earlier during the day, the French Radio aired a talk on Iqbal.149
Even a cursory glance on the above mentioned materials would reveal that Allama Iqbal being the originator of the idea of newly established state enjoyed a special status among the Pakistani intelligentsia. A survey of English dailies of Pakistan which existed during 1950 reveals that he was highly respected for his multidimensional services and his views were persistently quoted by renowned personalities of every walk of life, like writers, politicians, intellectuals, civil servants and theologians as guidelines to be pursued in reshaping the proposed structure of the motherland. His ideas were presented as a panacea for all the ills and rallying point for the development of a sense of unity and oneness.
This is the second of a series of surveys planned by the author covering the whole gambit of Iqbal Day celebrations for the last five decades or more. For the first part of the survey, dealing with 1950, see Iqbal Review Vol. 41, No. 2, April 2000. (Editor)
1 “Iqbal Society inaugurated at Karachi: Aims and objects outlined,” The Pakistan Times, January 24, 1951.
2 Shaista Shuhrawardy Ikramullah (1915-2000); worker of Pakistan movement, writer, diplomat, first Muslim woman PhD from London University; founder, All India Women Student’s Federation, 1934; member, Bengal Legislative Assembly, 1946; active member of Muslim League Women’s sub-committee, member, Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, 1947-54; Pakistan delegations to UN, 1948; as leader and Deputy Leader, 1956; Pakistan’s Ambassador to Morocco, 1964-67. Pubs. Letters to Neena; From Purdah to Parliament; Kushish-i-Natawan (Urdu short stories).
3 “Iqbal Society inaugurated at Karachi: Aims and objects outlined,” The Pakistan Times, January 24, 1951.
4 “Majlis-i-Iqbal for Chittagong,” The Pakistan Times, April 8, 1951.
5 “Iqbal Day programme for Dacca,” The Pakistan Times, April 10, 1951.
6 “Iqbal Day at Montgomery on April 21,” The Pakistan Times, April 13, 1951.
7 “Himayat-i-Islam to observe Iqbal Day,” The Pakistan Times, April 15, 1951.
8 “Iqbal Day meeting: Miss Jinnah to preside,” The Pakistan Times, April 16, 1951.
9 “Lahore arrangements for Miss Jinnah’s reception,” The Pakistan Times, April 19, 1951; “Miss Jinnah reach Lahore tomorrow,” The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi, April 19, 1951.
10 “Iqbal Day in Lahore Cantonment,” The Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore, April 20, 1951.
11 “Khatoon-i-Pakistan hailed at every station up to Lahore,” The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi, April 21, 1951; “Grand reception at way side railway stations,” The Pakistan Times, April 21, 1951.
12 “Miss Jinnah arrives in Lahore: Tumultuous reception at station,” The Pakistan Times, April 21, 1951; “Over 50,000 persons welcome Miss Jinnah at Lahore: One of biggest ever receptions”, The Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore, April 21, 1951; “Miss Jinnah gets great welcome at Lahore: Governor controls crowds,” Dawn, April 22, 1951; “Over 50,000 received Miss Jinnah at Lahore station,” The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi, April 23, 1951.
14 “Iqbal’s 13th death anniversary: Glowing tributes paid to poet all over Pakistan: Floral tributes to the poet at Lahore”, The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi, April 22, 1951; “Floral Tribute to Iqbal,” The Khyber Mail, April 22, 1951.
15 Khawaja Abdur Rahim (1908-1974); civil servant, writer, lawyer, worker of Pakistan movement; joined the ICS, 1932; Assistant Commissioner, Jallandhar; Deputy Commissioner, Gujrat, Lundhiana, Ferozepur, Lyallpur; Secretary, Punjab Boundary Commissioner, 1947; Chief Secretary, Government of the Punjab, President, Markazi Majlis-i-Iqbal.
16 “Iqbal’s 13th death anniversary: Glowing tributes paid to poet all over Pakistan: Floral tributes to the poet at Lahore”, The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi, April 22, 1951; “Floral Tribute to Iqbal,” The Khyber Mail, April 22, 1951.
17 Sardar Abdul Hameed Dasti (1892-1985); lawyer; politician: worker of Pakistan movement; practiced at Gurdaspur and Muzaffargarh, 1920; Public Prosecutor, 1938-45; member; Punjab Legislative Assembly, 1945-55; founder District Muslim League Muzaffargarh; Parliamentary Secretary and Food Minister, Mamdot Cabinet; Education Minister, Daultana Cabinet, Chief Minister, Punjab, 1955.
18 The annual meetings of the Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam, founded in 1884, were a source of assemblage of renowned Muslims from all over India and Iqbal got his earlier fame by reading his well-received poems there. (Siddiq Javid, Fikar-i-Iqbal ka Imrani Mutalah, Lahore, Iqbal Academy, 1996, pp.35-38). Nala-i-Yatim was his first poem read at the annual meeting of the Anjuman. This poem on one hand provided Iqbal the first opportunity to recite his verses in front of thousands of listeners and on the other hand, it fetched considerable charity for the Anjuman. Quoted in Ahmed Din, Iqbal, edited by Mushfaq Khawaja, Karachi, Anjuman-i-Taraqqi-i-Urdu, 1979, p.113.
19 Salahuddin Ahmed (1902-1964); journalist, writer, researcher, publisher, translator, founder-editor, monthly Adabi Dunya, Lahore. Pubs. Madah Saray; Tasawwurat-i-Iqbal; Urdu Main Afsanwi Adab; Iqbal Kay Das Shi‘r; Amrikah ka Siasi Nizam.
20 Shaikh Akbar Ali Arastu (1894-1953); lawyer; writer; social activist; politician; Secretary, Anjuman-i-Itthad-o-Taraqqi Musalmanan-i-Punjab, 1920; member General-Council, Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam, Lahore, 1926; Council, AIML, 1930; Assistant Secretary PPML, 1934-36; Hon. Secretary Publication Committee, Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam, 1927; School Committee; Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam, Lahore, 1943-53. Pub. Iqbal: His Poetry and Message.
21 “Iqbal’s 13th death anniversary: Glowing tributes paid to poet all over Pakistan: Floral tributes to the poet at Lahore”, The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi, April 22, 1951; “Floral Tribute to Iqbal,” The Khyber Mail, April 22, 1951.
24 “Miss Jinnah visits medical institutions and girls hostels” The Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore, April 23, 1951.
25 “Act honestly and fearlessly; Miss Jinnah’s address on Iqbal Day: Country pays homage to poet of the East,” The Pakistan Times, April 23, 1951; “Actively participate in construction of state: Miss Jinnah’s clarion call to people,” The Morning News, April 23, 1951; “Realize your responsibilities as a fearless nation: Miss Jinnah’s clarion call at Lahore ‘Iqbal Day’ meeting”, The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi, April 23, 1951; “Follow path of truth, faith and justice, 80,000 people hear Miss Jinnah’s consolidate Pakistan appeal,” The Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore, April 23, 1951; “Miss Jinnah’s call for unceasing effort,” Dawn, April 24, 1951; “Miss Jinnah’s call to Pakistanis,” The Pakistan Observer, April 24, 1951; “Iqbal Day: Miss Jinnah’s call to Nation,” The Khyber Mail, April 24, 1951.
26 “Punjab League’s tribute to Iqbal”, Dawn, April 24, 1951; “Punjab League’s tribute,” The Khyber Mail, April 24, 1951; “Punjab League homage to Iqbal,” The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi, April 23, 1951; “Punjab Muslim League’s tributes to Dr. Iqbal,” The Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore, April 23, 1951; “Punjab League pays tribute [to] Iqbal”, The Pakistan Observer, April 24, 1951.
27 Chaudhry Rahmatullah (d.1988); labour leader and worker of Pakistan movement; founder – member, Noujawan Bharat Sabha, 1928; Punjab Kisan Committee; member Executive Committee; All India Kisan Committee, AICC, joined the AIML, 1939; General Secretary, District Muslim League, Lahore; President, District Muslim League, Lahore; In charge Labour Wing, PPML; member, Council, Pakistan Muslim League; Secretary, PPML, 1952; member, Majlis-i-Shoora.
28 “Partisan spirit in ‘Iqbal Day’ celebrations deplored,” The Pakistan Times, April 24, 1951; “Exploiting Iqbal Committee’ The Khyber Mail, April 25, 1951.
29 “Azzam Bay on round of visits in Lahore,” Dawn, April 26, 1951; “Lecture on Iqbal,” The Pakistan Times, April 29, 1951; “Iqbal’s message is meant for whole Muslim world, Egyptian envoy,” The Pakistan Times, April 30, 1951. Azzam played a prominent role in promoting thought of Allama Iqbal in the Arab world. For details, see Munir Ahmed, “Abdul Wahab Azzam Ki Iqbal Shanasi,” Unpublished M. Phil Iqbaliyat thesis, Allama Iqbal Open University, 1993.
30 Mahmud Hussain Khan (1907-1975); educationist, parliamentarian, historian; Reader, Dhaka University, 1933-46; Professor of International Relations, Dhaka University, 1948; member, Pakistan Constituent Assembly, 1947-54; Deputy Minister, Government of Pakistan, 1949; Secretary, Muslim League Parliamentary Party, 1949; Minister for Kashmir Affairs, 1951; for Education, 1952; Professor & head of History Department, Karachi University, 1953; Vice Chancellor, Dhaka University, 1960; Head, Department of History, Karachi University, 1963; Visiting Professor Heidelberg, 1964-65; Vice Chancellor, Karachi University, 1971-75. Pubs. Dreams of Tipu Sultan; Arab Dunya; (Urdu translation of Nijla Izzuddin's The Arab World); Mu'ahidah-i-Umrani, Badshah, Fath ul Mujahidin.
31 “Observance of Iqbal Day in Karachi,” The Pakistan Times, April 18, 1951; “Iqbal Day today programme,” The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi, April 21, 1951.
33 “Iqbal’s greatness is universal: Glowing tributes to poet at city’s symposium,” The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi, April 21, 1951.
35 “In Iqbal throbbed a heart of ‘mard-i-momin’, Grand Mufti: National poet’s anniversary observed,” The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi, April 22, 1951; “Karachi observes Iqbal Day: Poet’s teaching to be Muslims recounted,” Dawn, April 22, 1951.
38 Iqbal was a close friend of Amin El-Husseni and on his invitation had also visited Palestine in 1932 to attend third World Muslim Congress. For details of Allama Iqbal’s association with Amin El-Husseni and his support for the Palestine cause, see Maueen-ud-Din Aqeel, Iqbal aur Jadid Dunay-i-Islam, Lahore, Maktaba-i-Tameer-i-Insaniat, 1986, pp.325-336. Also see Farman Fatehpuri, Iqbal Sab Kay Liye, Karachi, Urdu Academy, pp.173-177; Ghulam Ali Chaudhry, “Iqbal and Jinnah on Palestine,” Iqbal Review, Vol.32, No.3, October, 1991, pp.87-104; Hamza Faruqi, “Iqbal aur Masla-i-Filisteen,” Iqbal Review, Vol.10, No.2, pp.36-56.
39 For a comparative analysis of life and thoughts of Allama Iqbal and Ahmad Shawqi, see Majeed Jami, “A comparative study of Iqbal and Shawqi,” Iqbal Review, Vol.30-31, No.3, 1, October, 1989-April 1990, pp.151-158.
40 “In Iqbal throbbed a heart of ‘mard-e-momin’, Grand Mufti: National poet’s anniversary observed,” The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi, April 22, 1951; “Karachi observes Iqbal Day: Poet’s teaching to be Muslims recounted,” Dawn, April 22, 1951.
42 “Iqbal Day proceedings to be relayed”, The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi, April 22, 1951; “Iqbal’s message is for whole of humanity, Nazimuddin: Translation of works in other languages urged: Glowing tributes,” The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi, April 23, 1951; “Iqbal’s message is one of real and true Islam: Nazimuddin’s speak at poet’s death anniversary,” The Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore, April 23, 1951; “Message of true Islam,” The Pakistan Times, April 23, 1951; “Message of Iqbal is in fact message of Islam: Karachi homage to the great poet,” The Morning News, April 23, 1951; “Governor General’s appeal,” The Khyber Mail, April 24, 1951; “Iqbal gave message of real Islam: Governor General’s homage to the poet,” Dawn, April 24, 1951.
47 Muhammad Afzal Faruqi (1892-1970); renowned eye specialist having strong literary traits; remained Director-General Health Services Pakistan Army.
48 “Pindi observance: Army takes the lead,” Dawn, April 22, 1951.
49 “Iqbal Day in Sialkot,” The Pakistan Times, April 24, 1951.
50 Muhammad Abdus Sattar Khan Niazi (1915-2001); orator, politician, theologian, worker of Pakistan movement; founder member and third President, Punjab Muslim Students’ Federation, 1938-39; Secretary, PML Rural Propaganda Committee, 1941; President Mianwali District Muslim League; Secretary, Punjab Provincial Muslim League; member Punjab Assembly, 1946; one of the main leaders of anti-qadiani movement, 1952-53; sentenced to death but later released; played a prominent role in national politics as a front rank leader of the Jamiatul Ulama-i-Pakistan since 1970; main leader of Tahrik-i-Nizam-i-Mustafa, 1977; member National Assembly, 1988-90; Senator and Minister for Religious Affairs, 1997-99; Vice-Chairman World Islamic Mission. Pubs. Khilafat-i-Pakistan; Main Abdus Sattar Niazi, Naraha-i-Haq; Nazria-i-Pakistan Aur Hum; Ithadul Bain-ul-Muslameen (Part I and II).
51 “Iqbal Day at Mianwali,” The Pakistan Times, April 24, 1951.
52 “Quetta observes Iqbal Day,” Dawn, April 24, 1951. It may be pointed out that Allama Iqbal himself visited Baluchistan in 1903, 1927, 1929 and in 1933. For details, see Inam-ul-Haq Kusar, Allama Iqbal aur Baluchistan, Islamabad, Allama Iqbal Open University, 1986, pp.29-34.
53 Nazir Mirza Barlas (1908-1978); poet of Urdu and Persian languages, educationist. Pub. Tarh-i-Nau.
54 Ahmed Altaf (Khalish Hamdani) (1921-1999); writer, novelist, founder Secretary Halqa Arbab-i-Zauq, Peshawar. Pubs. Khun Main Dubay Tu Sahr Daikhi; Tanvir Lahuki; Paias ka Sahra; Sang-i-Malamat; Muhammad Khan Daku; Aik Abalah Pa Tanha (autobiography), Ruswai’an Kia Kia; Ru’ay Dukh ka Sagar; Bat Chupa’y Guri.
55 “Act honestly and fearlessly: Miss Jinnah’s address on ‘Iqbal Day’: Country pays homage to poet of the East”, The Pakistan Times, April 23, 1951.
57 Syed Ali Ahmad Shah (1900-1990); worker of Kashmir liberation movement, a close associate of Ch. Ghulam Abbass, also remained President of AJK Government.
58 “Act honestly and fearlessly: Miss Jinnah’s address on ‘Iqbal Day’: Country pays homage to poet of the East”, The Pakistan Times, April 23, 1951.
59 ‘Raz’, “Radio Review: Iqbal Day features”, The Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore, April 27, 1951.
60 Sajjad Ali Khan (Raz Moradabadi) (1916-1982); prominent Urdu poet; writer and broadcaster; remained associated with Radio Pakistan Dhaka and BBC London; Pub. Harf-i-Raz, 1978.
61 Syed Mustafa Ali Hamdani (1909-1980); broadcaster, writer, poet; Pub. Hum Safar (autobiography).
62 ‘Raz’, “Radio Review: Iqbal Day features”, The Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore, April 27, 1951.
63 M. Afzal, “Letter to editor: Iqbal Academy,” Dawn, April 26, 1951.
64 “Jessore observes Iqbal Day,” Dawn, April 20, 1951; “Iqbal Day at Jessore,” The Morning News, April 20, 1951.
65 “Iqbal death anniversary: Dacca’s celebration programme,” The Morning News, April 19, 1951; “Iqbal Day celebration programme,” The Pakistan Observer, April 21, 1951; “Iqbal Day: today’s functions,” The Morning News, April 21, 1951; “Allama Iqbal wrought great change in Quaid’s ideology: Dacca pays glowing tributes to memory of the poet,” The Morning News, April 22, 1951; “Iqbal: A lover of life and believer in dynamic action: City pays homage to first dreamer of Pakistan,” The Pakistan Observer, April 22, 1951; “Iqbal Day programme at Curzon Hall,” The Pakistan Observer, April 22, 1951.
68 Zafar Ahmad Usmani (1892-1974); prominent theologian, poet, writer, active member of Pakistan movement; Unfurled Pakistani flag on August 19, 1947 at Dhaka; remained Shiekhul Hadith Dar ul Ulum Islamia Tando Allah Yar Khan. Pubs. Anwar al Nazar fi Athar al Zafar; Fatawa Imdad ul Ahkam; Tehzir ul Muslamin min al Muamalat al Mushrikin.
69 “Iqbal death anniversary: Dacca’s celebration programme,” The Morning News, April 19, 1951; “Iqbal Day celebration programme,” The Pakistan Observer, April 21, 1951; “Iqbal Day: today’s functions,” The Morning News, April 21, 1951; “Allama Iqbal wrought great change in Quaid’s ideology: Dacca pays glowing tributes to memory of the poet,” The Morning News, April 22, 1951; “Iqbal: A lover of life and believer in dynamic action: City pays homage to first dreamer of Pakistan,” The Pakistan Observer, April 22, 1951; “Iqbal Day programme at Curzon Hall,” The Pakistan Observer, April 22, 1951.
70 Syed Hayatul Haq Muhammad Mohi-ud-Din (Tamana ‘Imadi) (1888-1972); theologian, poet of Arabic and Persian, writer, researcher. Pubs. al-Qasidal al-Zahra'; Intazar-i-Mehdi; Fan-i-Rijat ki Rusani Main.
71 “Iqbal death anniversary: Dacca’s celebration programme,” The Morning News, April 19, 1951; “Iqbal Day celebration programme,” The Pakistan Observer, April 21, 1951; “Iqbal Day: today’s functions,” The Morning News, April 21, 1951; “Allama Iqbal wrought great change in Quaid’s ideology: Dacca pays glowing tributes to memory of the poet,” The Morning News, April 22, 1951; “Iqbal: A lover of life and believer in dynamic action: City pays homage to first dreamer of Pakistan,” The Pakistan Observer, April 22, 1951; “Iqbal Day programme at Curzon Hall,” The Pakistan Observer, April 22, 1951.
76 Habibullah Bahar (1906-1966); politician, writer, worker of Pakistan movement, one of the leading post-Tagore Bengali literators who ushered in cultural renaissance among the Bengali Muslims; participated in the non-co-operation movement, 1921; Secretary, All Bengal Muslim Literary Association; member, working committee, AIML, 1937; working committee, BPML, 1944; Bengal Legislative Assembly, 1944; Pakistan Constituent Assembly, 1953; Minister, Health and Local Self Government East Bengal, 1947-54.
77 Nurul Amin (1897-1974); politician, lawyer, worker of Pakistan movement; practiced at Mymensingh, 1924; President, Mymensingh District Board, 1937-46; member, Council, AIML; Bengal Legislative Assembly, 1942; Working Committee, BPML, 1944; Speaker, Bengal Legislative Assembly, 1945-47; Minister for Civil Supplies, Bengal, 1947-48; Chief Minister, East Pakistan, 1948-54; member, Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, 1953; National Assembly of Pakistan, 1965, 1970; Opposition Leader, National Assembly of Pakistan, 1965; Chairman, National Democratic Front, 1964; Chief of the Pakistan Democratic Party, 1969; Vice-President of Pakistan, 1972-73.
78 “Iqbal death anniversary: Dacca’s celebration programme,” The Morning News, April 19, 1951; “Iqbal Day celebration programme,” The Pakistan Observer, April 21, 1951; “Iqbal Day: today’s functions,” The Morning News, April 21, 1951; “Allama Iqbal wrought great change in Quaid’s ideology: Dacca pays glowing tributes to memory of the poet,” The Morning News, April 22, 1951; “Iqbal: A lover of life and believer in dynamic action: City pays homage to first dreamer of Pakistan,” The Pakistan Observer, April 22, 1951; “Iqbal Day programme at Curzon Hall,” The Pakistan Observer, April 22, 1951.
79 Syed Raza Ali Wahshat Calcuttvi (1881-1956); poet, educationist, expert of Urdu and Persian; Chairman Urdu and Persian, Islamia College, Calcutta. Pubs. Diwan-i-Wahshat; Taranah-i-Wahshat; Naqush-o-Athar.
80 For a survey of Wahshat’s relations with Allama Iqbal, see Wafa Rashdi, “Iqbal aur Wahshat,” Iqbal Review, Vol.24, No.2, July, 1983, pp.35-47.
81 Iqbal Ahmed Khalili (Iqbal Safipuri) (1916-1999); famous poet. Pubs. Rang-o-Nur; Rahmat Laqab (e); Shakh-i-Gul.
82 Altaf Mushhadi (1914-1981); famous poet. Pubs. Altaf kay Naghmay; Altaf kay Geet; Taswir-i-Ehsas; Dagh Bail; Dagar; Shakh-i-Gull; Lazt-i-Rang-o-Bau; Parit kay Geet.
83 Syed Hamid Raza Naqvi (Zareef Jabbalpuri) (1913-1964); humorous Urdu poet. Pubs. Farman-i-Zarafat; Talafi-i-Mafaat.
84 “Iqbal death anniversary: Dacca’s celebration programme,” The Morning News, April 19, 1951; “Iqbal Day celebration programme,” The Pakistan Observer, April 21, 1951; “Iqbal Day: today’s functions,” The Morning News, April 21, 1951; “Allama Iqbal wrought great change in Quaid’s ideology: Dacca pays glowing tributes to memory of the poet,” The Morning News, April 22, 1951; “Iqbal: A lover of life and believer in dynamic action: City pays homage to first dreamer of Pakistan,” The Pakistan Observer, April 22, 1951; “Iqbal Day programme at Curzon Hall,” The Pakistan Observer, April 22, 1951.
85 M.A. Bari, “Letter to editor: Iqbal Day at Dacca,” The Morning News, April 26, 1951.
86 Syed Iqbal Azeem (1913-2000); famous Urdu poet, writer, researcher, educationist. Pubs. Mashriqi Bengal main Urdu; Sat Sitaray; Chiragh-i-Akhir-i-Shab; Midrab; Qaba Qausain; Lub Kusha; Mahasal.
87 “Iqbal Day special broadcasts”, The Pakistan Observer, April 21, 1951; “Iqbal Day special broadcasts,” The Morning News, April 21, 1951.
88 “Read Iqbal’s works: Noon’s stirring call to East Pakistan youths,” The Morning News, April 23, 1951; “People urged to read Iqbal: Malik Noon’s assurance to patronise study of poet’s works;” The Pakistan Observer, April 23, 1951; “Noon urges people to read Iqbal’s works in original,” Dawn, April 24, 1951; “Noon urges Bengalis to read Iqbal,” The Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore, April 24, 1951; “Firoz Khan Noon asks East Pakistan youth to study Iqbal in original,” The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi, April 24, 1951,”Read Iqbal in original: Noon’s advice to Bengalis,” The Pakistan Times, April 24, 1951.
89 Ibid. For a brief survey of Iqbal’s views on socialism, see S. A. Rahman, Iqbal and Socialism, Karachi, Hamdard Academy, 1974; Also see Fatih Aziz Ahmed, Iqbal, Quaid-i-Azam aur Islami Socialism, Gujrat, Maktabah-i-Zafar, 1970.
94 “Iqbal Day in Quaid-i-Azam College,” The Pakistan Observer, April 24, 19561.
95 “Iqbal Day functions end,” The Morning News, April 23, 1951.
97 “Iqbal Day,” The Morning News, April 25, 1951;”Iqbal Day observed in S. M. Hall,” The Pakistan Observer, April 27, 1951; “Iqbal Day at S.M. Hall,” The Morning News, April 28, 1951.
98 “Iqbal Day at Khulna Girl’s School,” The Morning News, April 24, 1951; “Appeal on Iqbal Day,” The Pakistan Observer, April 24, 1951.
99 “Iqbal Day,” The Morning News, April 26, 1951.
100 “Homage paid to Iqbal,” The Pakistan Observer, April 24, 1951.
101 “Iqbal Day at Narayanganj,” The Pakistan Observer, April 25, 1951.
102 “Iqbal Day at Rangpur,” The Morning News, April 26, 1951.
103 “Iqbal Day at Gaibandha”, The Morning News, April 25, 1951.
104 “Iqbal Day observed,” The Pakistan Observer, April 24, 1951.
105 “Iqbal Day at Mymensingh,” The Morning News, April 28, 1951.
106 “Iqbal Day at Khulna,” The Morning News, April 29, 1951.
107 “Iqbal Day in Karotia”, The Morning News, April 27, 1951.
108 “Iqbal Day at Parbatipur,” The Morning News, April 27, 1951.
109 Shahabuddin Rahmatullah (1913-1991); civil servant, lawyer, poet, critic, writer and painter; translated works of Iqbal and Ghalib into English; retired as Secretary, Planning Commission of Pakistan. Pubs. Art in Urdu Poetry; Hundred Gems From Ghalib; The Call of the Bell (verse translation of Bang-i-Dara); Shahab Biti; Yadain aur Riwa’itain, Muraqqa-i-Shahab, Safar-i-Jalal.
110 “Sylhet observes Iqbal Day,” Dawn, April 28, 1951.
112 “Iqbal Day in Chittagong,” The Pakistan Observer, April 28, 1951.
113 “Iqbal Day to be observed at Iqbal Hall,” The Pakistan Observer, April 23, 1951; “Iqbal Day”, The Morning News, April 27, 1951; “Iqbal Day celebration,” The Pakistan Observer, April 27, 1951.
114 “Salimullah College to observe Iqbal Day,” The Pakistan Observer, April 25, 1951.
115 “Iqbal Day at Chittagong”, The Pakistan Observer, April 30, 1951; “Iqbal Day in Chittagong”, Dawn, April 30, 1951.
116 “Iqbal Day celebrated in Tehran,” The Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore, April 24, 1951; “Tehran’s homage to Iqbal,” The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi, April 24, 1951; “Glowing tributes paid to Iqbal: Celebration in Pak Embassy in Tehran,” The Pakistan Observer, April 24, 1951; “Iqbal Day celebration in Tehran,” Dawn, April 24, 1951; “Homage to poet of the East,” Dawn, April 26, 1951; “Iqbal’s poetry inspired hope and courage: Celebration in Tehran”, The Morning News, April 26, 1951; “Iqbal’s immortal spirit pervades Iran, Hussain Ala,” The Morning News, April 27, 1951.
119 Allama Iqbal’s in depth study of Persian language and literature is exhibited by his reference to more than sixty Persian poets, renowned as well as less known, in his poetry and prose works. In addition, Iqbal has contributed about nine thousand couplets in Persian language. Quoted in Muhammad Riaz, “A comparative appraisal of Iqbal’s Persian poetry,” Iqbal Review, Vol. XX, No.1, April 1979, p.13.
120 “Iqbal Day celebrated in Tehran,” The Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore, April 24, 1951; “Tehran’s homage to Iqbal,” The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi, April 24, 1951; “Glowing tributes paid to Iqbal: Celebration in Pak Embassy in Tehran,” The Pakistan Observer, April 24, 1951; “Iqbal Day celebration in Tehran,” Dawn, April 24, 1951; “Homage to poet of the East,” Dawn, April 26, 1951; “Iqbal’s poetry inspired hope and courage: Celebration in Tehran”, The Morning News, April 26, 1951; “Iqbal’s immortal spirit pervades Iran, Hussain Ala,” The Morning News, April 27, 1951.
122 “Poet-laureate of Iran dead: Iqbal Day coincidence,” The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi, April 24, 1951.
123 “Ceylon Muslim leader’s homage to Iqbal,” Dawn, April 21, 1951; “Iqbal: Philosopher, guide and poet: A tribute,” The Sind Observer, Karachi April 21, 1951; “In Ceylon,” Dawn, April 22, 1951; “Our debt to Iqbal immeasurable: Ceylon Muslims’ tributes,” The Morning News, April 23, 1951; “Iqbal Day in Ceylon”, The Pakistan Observer, April 24, 1951; “Iqbal, guide, friend and philosopher,” The Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore, April 24, 1951.
125 “ Iqbal Day observed in Cairo & Ankara”, The Morning News, April 27, 1951; “Iqbal’s 13th death anniversary in Cairo,” The Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore, April 25, 1951; “Egypt pays tributes to Iqbal,” The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi, April 25, 1951.
127 “Fuad 1st University observes Iqbal Day: Altaf describes Iqbal as poet of mankind”, The Sind Observer, April 12, 1951.
131 “Ankara Varsity observes ‘Iqbal Day’,” The Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore, April 25, 1951; “Ankara”, The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi, April 24, 1951; “Iqbal Day observed in Cairo and Ankara,” The Morning News, April 27, 1951; “Ankara News: Foreign policy debate: Iqbal Day observed,” Dawn, April 28, 1951; “Iqbal: poet of humanity,” The Sind Observer, May 3, 1951; “Iqbal belongs to whole humanity: Ankara homage,” Dawn, May 4, 1951; “Iqbal belong to whole humanity: Glowing tributes to poet at Ankara meeting,” The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi, May 4, 1951.
133 Khawaja Syed Ali Hasan (Hasan Nizami) (1878-1957); well known writer, scholar, mystic and journalist; editor, Tauheed, Merrut, 1913; launched weekly Munadi and Nizamul Mashaikh; Published numerous writings.
134 “New Delhi meeting,” Dawn, April 22, 1951; “Poet of Asia,” The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi, April 22, 1951; “Delhi celebrates Iqbal Day,” The Pakistan Observer, April 24, 1951; “ Iqbal Day at Delhi,” The Morning News, April 24, 1951.
135 Kailash Nath Katju; Lawyer and politician, educated at Lahore and Allahabad; practiced Law at Cawnpur, 1908-14; and Allahabad; member UPCC, and AICC, 1921-46; Minister of Justice, Industries and Development, U.P., 1937-39; April 1946 – August 1947; Governor Orissa, August 1947 – June 1948 and West Bengal, June 1948.
136 “In Calcutta,” Dawn, April 22, 1951; “Iqbal Day in Calcutta,” The Pakistan Observer, April 24, 1951.
137 “Iqbal Day in London,” Dawn, April 20, 1951.
138 “Iqbal’s death anniversary: BBC programme,” The Pakistan Times, April 14, 1951; “BBC programme for Iqbal Day,” The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi, April 21, 1951.
139 “Iqbal Day at Jeddah,” The Civil and Military Gazette, Karachi, April 20, 1951; “Iqbal Day in Jeddah”, The Khyber Mail, April 21, 1951; “Iqbal Day observed at Jeddah,” The Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore, April 21, 1951.
140 “Iqbal Day greetings from U.S,” The Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore, April 24, 1951.
141 “Great pioneer of Renaissance in East: Burma’s tribute to Iqbal,” The Morning News, April 27, 1951.
144 “Iqbal Day observed in Baghdad,” Dawn, May 4, 1951. Nasim Hijazi, the well known Urdu novelist had a special devotion for Allama Iqbal. For detail, see Tahira Naz, “Nasim Hijazi par Allama Iqbal kay Ashrat ka Jaiza,” Unpublished M. Phil Iqbaliat thesis, Allama Iqbal Open University, 2001.
145 “Australian tribute,” Dawn, May 4, 1951.
147 “Iqbal’s affinity with French tradition: Persian scholar’s tribute,” Dawn, April 29, 1951.
148 Ibid. Allama Iqbal was very fond of Mansur Hallaj’s book Kitab al Tawwasiin edited by Massignon in 1913. During his journey to London to participate in third RTC held in 1932, Iqbal stopped at Paris and especially went to Massignon’s residence to meet him. For details, see Muhammad Siddique, Allama Iqbal and Unkay B‘az Ahbab, Lahore, Bazm-i-Iqbal, 1988, pp.96-105. For an English translation of Massignon’s notes on Tawwasiin, see R. A. Butler, “Louis Massignon’s Notes on Kitab Al Tawasin,” Iqbal Review, Vol. XI, No. 3, October 1970, pp.28-57.