Iqbal was born in the Punjab on 9thNov,1877.
His ancestors, who were Kashmiri Brahmins, had
embraced Islam two hundred years earlier.
Iqbals own father was a devout Muslim with
Sufistic bent of mind.
He received his early education in Sialkot. After
passing the entrance examination, he joined
Intermediary College. Mir Hassan, a great oriental
scholar, had a special aptitude for islamic Studies.
Passing on to the Government College of Lahore, Iqbal
did his graduation with English Literature,
Philosophy and Arabic as his subjects. At the college
he met Prof. Arnold and Sir Abdul Qadir.During this
Period he wrote different Poems which gave him much
In the mean time he had done his MA in Philosophy and
was appointed as a Lecturer in History, Philosophy
and Political science at Oriental College, Lahore. He
then moved to Government College to teach Philosophy
and English Literature.Wherever Iqbal worked or thought
his versatility and scholarship made a deep impression
on those around him.
Iqbal proceeded to Europe for higher studies in 1905
and stayed there for three years. He took the Honors
Degree in Philosophy and taught Arabic at the Cambridge
University in the absence of Prof. Arnold. From England,
he went to Germany to do his doctorate in Philosophy
from Munich and then returned to London to qualify for
Back in India
Iqbal returned to India in 1908. The poet had won all
these academic laurels by the time he was 32 or 33. He
practiced as a lawyer from 1908 to 1934, when ill health
compelled him to give up his practice. In fact, his heart
was not in it and he devoted more time to philosophy
and literature than to legal profession.He attended the
meetings of Anjuman Himayat-I-Islam regularly at Lahore.
Iqbal in Cordova
While in England, Iqbal accepted the hospitality of Spain.
He also went to Cordoba and had the distinction of being
the first Muslim to offer prayers at its historical mosque
after the exile of Moors. Memories of the past glory of Arabs
and their 800-year rule over Spain were revived in his mind
and his emotions were aroused by what he saw.Meeting with
Mussolini In Italy Iqbal was received by Mussolini who had
read some of his works and was aquatinted with his philosophy.
Iqbal as Politician
In 1927 the poet was elected to the Punjab Legislative assembly.
In 1930, he was elected to preside over at the annual session
of Muslim League. In his presidential address at Allahabad,
Iqbal for the first time introduced the idea of Pakistan. In
1930-31, he attended the Round Table conference, which met
in London to frame a constitution for India.
The last phase of Iqbals life was embittered with constant
illness. But as regards his creative activities this product
was most productive. He kept in touch with every question of
the day and continued composing beautiful verses.
A few minutes before his death he recited these touching lines:
Although Iqbals was long and protracted the end was sudden
and verypeaceful. He breathed his last in the early hours
of April 21, 1938, in the arms of his old and devoted servant,
leaving behind a host of mourners all over the Islamic world.
There was a faint smile playing on his lips, which irresistibly
reminded one of the last criterions, which he laid down for a
truthful Muslim.I tell you the sign of a Mumin
When death comes there is smile on his lips.